Toyota engines - G16E-GTS

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Eugenio,77
mail@toyota-club.net
© Toyota-Club.Net
Oct 2020


EngineDispl. cm3Bore x Stroke, mmCompr.Power, hpTorque, NmRONECSMarket
G16E-GTS161887.5 x 89.710.5261 / 6500360 / 3000-460098D-4STEUR
272 / 6500370 / 3000-460098AUS
272 / 6500370 / 3000-460095JAP

Compliance with eco-standards: EURO 6b..6d
Dry weight: 109 kg
Firing order: 1-2-3

G16E-GTS (1.6 D-4ST ) - transverse layout, combined injection, turbocharged, DVVT-iW. Applications: Toyota Yaris GR



When we first got acquainted with Japanese cars, not even the "legendary JZ" were considered the pinnacle of technology, but the charged inline-six of older M series. Today, for a non-mass but still a commercial model, Toyota gets more power and torque from half the number of cylinders, half displacement and half engine weight.


G16E-GTS (1.6 D-4ST)

Engine mechanical

The cylinder block - aluminum "open deck" with thin cast iron liners. The liners are fused into block and their special rough outer surface provides strong connection. There are sloping coolant channels drilled between the cylinders. The oil level gage passage is made in the block and acts as a channel for blow-by gases.


1 - cylinder block, 2 - crankshaft bearing cap, 3 - cylinder liner. b - oil drain passage, c - oil level gauge passage, d - cylinder bore, h - knock sensor boss, i - side groove, k - shallow-bottom water jacket, l - water passage


1 - oil pan, 2 - oil pan 2. a - oil drain passage, b - anti-churn baffle, c - high pressure oil passage

The axis of the crankshaft has been shifted by 10 mm relative to the cylinder axis lines ("desaxage" or offset), thus reducing the lateral component of the force exerted by the piston to the cylinder wall, reducing friction and wear.



The crankshaft has 4 main journals and 4 balance weights. The bearing caps are integrated into the crankcase. Forged connecting rods, trapezoidal top heads to reduce weight. Bearings are of aluminum, with a metal antifriction layer. An additional polymer coating is applied to the thrust washers.


a-d - main bearing journal, e - balance weight


1 - upper crankshaft thrust washer, 2 - upper main bearing (crankshaft bearing), 3 - lower main bearing (crankshaft bearing). a - metal overlay, b - resin overlay

The pistons made of aluminum, T-shaped, with thin inner walls. The groove of the upper compression ring is made in a niresist insert. The edges of the rings are coated with DLC (Diamond Like Carbon). A polymer coating is applied to the working part of the piston skirt (that surface has been previously shot-peened). The pistons are connected to the connecting rods by fully floating pins with retaining rings.


1 - compression ring 1, 2 - compression ring 2, 3 - oil ring. b - shot peening treatment and resin coating, c - DLC coating, d - Ni-resist cast iron, e - shot peening treatment

The balancer shaft is gear driven from the crankshaft. The shaft is bolted to the crankcase with a separate support for ease of maintenance.


1 - drive gear, 2 - crankshaft, 3 - balance shaft, 4 - housing, 5 - driven gear, 6 - shim

The camshaft mounts are separate from the cylinder head. The exhaust valves are hollow, sodium cooled. There are hydraulic valve lash adjusters and roller rockers in the valvetrain mechanism.


1-4 - camshaft bearing cap, 5 - cylinder head, 6 - intake valve, 7 - exhaust valve, 8 - valve lash adjuster. a - intake side, b - exhaust side

The cooling jacket of the head is divided into two levels to accelerate the flow of antifreeze.


a - water jacket (upper), b - water jacket (lower)

Timing drive - by single-row roller chain (pitch 9.525 mm) with hydraulic tensioner.

VVT actuators both for the intake and exhaust camshafts are installed (DVVT - Dual Variable Valve Timing). The actuators - hydraulic type, wide range for intake (VVT-iW), traditional for exhaust (VVT-i). Timing variations range - 70° for intake and 41° for exhaust. More about Toyota VVT operation.


1 - timing gear (exhaust), 2 - timing gear (intake), 3 - exhaust camshaft, 4 - intake camshaft, 5 - valve lash adjuster, 6 - rocker arm, 7 - valve stem cap, 8 - valve spring retainer lock, 9 - valve spring retainer, 10 - valve compression spring, 11 - valve stem oil seal, 12 - valve spring seat, 13 - valve guide bush, 14 - valve

The camshafts are modular (cams are mounted on a hollow shaft). The exhaust camshaft drives the injection pump by profiled cam and also drives the vacuum pump.

The timing chain is closed with two covers (VVT-iW and VVT-i valve are attached to the upper cover) and the oil pump is mounted to the lower one.


1 - over 2, 2 - VVT control solenoid (exhaust), 3 - VVT control solenoid (intake), 4 - cover

The cylinder head is covered with alloy cover, provided with oil delivery pipe for the rockers lubrication.


1 - cylinder head cover, 2 - gasket, 3 - oil delivery pipe

The engine is suspended with three mounts, the right one is "hydraulic" to reduce vibration and noise.


1 - RH mount insulator, 2 - LH mount insulator, 3 - control rod


Lubrication


1 - oil delivery pipe, 2 - timing gear (exhaust), 3 - timing gear (intake), 4 - chain tensioner, 5 - oil pump, 6 - oil cooler, 7 - oil filter, 8 - oil strainer, 9-11 - oil nozzle, 12 - turbocharger

Oil pump is of traditional design, built into the chain lower cover and driven directly by the crankshaft.


1 - timing chain cover, 2 - oil pump rotor. a - cover back

Oil nozzles that lubricate and cool the pistons are provided, supplied through check valves.


1-3 - oil nozzle. b - check valve

The oil filter is of a classic format, but with a new type of paper element, mounted horizontally on the oil cooler bracket.



Cooling

Cooling system of classic type - with a mechanical pump and thermostat (nominal opening temperature - 80-84°C).


1 - water inlet housing with water pump, 2 - throttle body, 3 - reserve tank, 4 - water outlet housing, 5 - turbocharger, 6 - radiator, 7 - oil cooler, 8 - thermostat. a - from heater radiator, b - to heater radiator


1 - coolant pump, 2 - pump rotor, 3 - inlet housing, 4 - thermostat, 5 - water inlet housing (thermostat). a - to oil cooler

The fan motor control unit allows to adjust fan speed steplessly depending on the coolant temperature, climate control, vehicle speed and engine speed. The fan - single, large diameter.


1 - shroud, 2 - fan motor (ECU), 3 - fan

Intake and exhaust


1 - throttle body, 2 - intake manifold, 3 - turbocharger, 4 - air cleaner, 5 - AICV VSV, 6 - air cleaner inlet 1, 7 - intercooler

"Dual Intake System" - an AICV valve is installed at the air inlet, controlled by VSV. At low rpm air is taken only through channel 1, at high rpm an additional channel opens.


1 - AICV VSV, 2 - actuator. a - normal air intake, b - augmented air intake, c - AICV closed, d - AICV open

The single-scroll turbocharger is integrated into the exhaust manifold. Boost pressure control by pneumatical type WGT valve. An electrically actuated air bypass valve is installed to prevent the surge phenomenon (charged air backflow when the throttle valve is closing). Frontal air-air type intercooler is installed.

Fuel system / Engine control (D-4ST)

Fuel injection - combined: directly in the combustion chamber and multipoint in the inlet ports.



At low to medium loads - combined injection is applied - homogeneous mixture increases the stability of the combustion process and reduces emissions. Under a heavy load use direct fuel injection - the evaporation of the fuel in the cylinder filling mass improves and reduces the tendency to knock.


1 - ECM, 2 - fuel pressure sensor (high pressure), 3 - fuel rail (high pressure), 4 - injector (high pressure), 5 - fuel pressure sensor (low pressure), 6 - fuel rail (low pressure), 7 - injector (low pressure), 8 - fuel pump ECU, 9 - fuel tank, 10 - fuel main valve, 11 - fuel filter, 12 - fuel pump (low pressure), 13 - fuel pump (high pressure), 14 - fuel filter, 15 - spill control valve, 16 - check valve, 17 - fuel relief valve, 18 - exhaust camshaft


1 - injector (low pressure), 2 - injector (high pressure)


· Injection pump (high pressure) - single-plunger with control valve, relief valve, check valve. The fuel pressure is regulated in the range 2.4..20 MPa depending on the driving conditions.


1 - spill control valve, 2 - roller lifter, 3 - injector (high pressure), 4 - fuel rail (high pressure), 5 - fuel pressure sensor (high pressure), 6 - fuel tank, 7 - fuel main valve, 8 - fuel filter, 9 - fuel pump (low pressure), 10 - fuel pump (high pressure), 11 - fuel filter, 12 - plunger, 13 - check valve, 14 - fuel relief valve, 15 - exhaust camshaft. a - low-pressure fuel, b - high-pressure fuel, c - to fuel rail (low pressure), d - fuel rail (high pressure)

· Fuel rail (high pressure) - steel-pressed, contains fuel pressure sensor to provide feedback.
· Fuel rail (low pressure) - steel stamped, its walls themselves serve as fuel pressure pulsation damper. The pressure sensor is installed in the rail.
· Injectors (high pressure) - with a 6-point nozzle, inject fuel into cylinders as complex shaped torch for maximum atomization of gasoline.
· Injectors (low pressure) - with a long 10-point sprayer that delivers fuel into the air stream and minimizes fuel impact to the walls.


1 - injector (high pressure), 2 - boost pressure sensor 2, 3 - injector (low pressure), 4 - fuel pressure sensor (low pressure), 5 - camshaft position sensor (intake), 6 - fuel pump (high pressure), 7 - camshaft position sensor (exhaust), 8 - engine coolant temperature sensor, 9 - EVAP VSV, 10 - fuel pressure sensor (high pressure), 11 - oil pressure and temperature sensor, 12 - crank position sensor, 13 - knock control sensor, 14 - boost pressure sensor 1, 15 - throttle body


1 - ignition coil, 2 - vacuum regulating valve, 3 - VVT control solenoid (intake), 4 - VVT control solenoid (exhaust), 5 - air bypass valve, 6 - vacuum sensor

· Oxygen sensors - air-fuel ratio sensor (AFS) - planar-type upstream and cup-type downstream of catalyst (different heaters).
· Mass air flow sensor (MAF) - "slot-in" type - air flow is determined by the temperature difference of two sensing elements, between which the heater is located.
· Throttle - electronically controlled (ETCS): DC motor, dual-channel non-contact position sensor (Hall effect).
· Accelerator pedal position sensor - dual-channel non-contact (Hall effect).
· Knock sensor - flat piezoelectric type.
· Oil pressure / oil temperature combined sensor.
· Fuel pressure sensors - for high and low pressure circuits.
· Vacuum sensor - at the turbocharger inlet.
· Boost pressure sensors - after the turbocharger and in the intake manifold.
· Crankshaft and camshaft position sensors - MRE-type.

· Crankcase ventilation (PCV) - with a large oil separator. The built-in PCV valve in the head allows you to get rid of the extra vacuum hose.


1 - ventilation case, 2 - intake manifold, 3 - ventilation hose, 4 - PCV valve

· Fuel evaporation system (EVAP) - a simple version, with one PWM-controlled canister purge valve, the canister is built into the fuel pump module.
· Particulate filter is integrated in the exhaust system - see details at "Toyota gasoline engines particulate filters (GPF)".

Electrical equipment

· Ignition system - DIS-3 type (separate coil with integrated igniter for each cylinder).
· Spark plugs - NGK DILKAR8U7G - "thin" (reduced thread diameter), central electrode tip made of iridium alloy, ground electrode with platinum coating, extended threaded part (Long Reach).
· Starter with planetary gear (1.7 kW) and built-in ICR-relay, which should stabilize the on-board voltage during starting.
· Alternator split-pulley contains a spring to reduce the torsional vibrations.


1 - generator, 2 - water pump, 3 - A/C compressor, 4 - crankshaft, 5 - tensioner, 6 - resin ring. a - foreign object jam prevention shape

Additional details can be found in the M15 or A25 engines overview (links below).


Toyota engines review
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