Leaner Celica

Toyota's new Celica coupe is leaner, lighter, and more compact and efficient. Reflecting Toyota's ongoing strategy, it is more youth-oriented and represents a good sporting value for money. Gone is the out-and-out performance version, the all-wheel-drive GT-Four, on which the company's world rally championship contender was based. All Celica models are now front-wheel driven by a new transverse powertrain.

The new Celica's radical and crisp styling theme was created in the fertile mind of an American designer at Toyota's California center, refined in shape and aerodynamics, and adapted to the production model at the Toyota-city design center. The two-door hatchback coupe shares its platform with the Japanese-market-only Vista sedan. Its 2600-mm (102-in) wheelbase is 65 mm (2.6 in) longer than its predecessor's, while overall length has been reduced by 100 mm (3.9 in) to 4335 mm (171 in). The interior space, both for occupants and luggage, has been increased by the new packaging. The car is slightly narrower at 1735 mm (68 in), and its height remains the same at 1305 mm (51 in). The base Japanese SS-I model's mass is 1090 kg (2403 lb), 60 kg (132 lb) lighter than the comparable model in the previous series. Front and rear weight distribution is 64 and 36%, respectively.

Two versions of the ZZ-series 1.8-liter inline four-cylinder engine with dual overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder have replaced the 35-series 2.0-L (Japanese) and 2.2-L (U.S.) engines in the previous-generation Celica. The type 1ZZ was first launched in the current U.S. built Corolla, and then adopted in the larger Japanese-market Vista. Here it is fitted with the VVT-i continuously variable intake-valve-timing system and given the FE suffix. The 1ZZ-FE produces 107 kW (145 hp) at 6400 rpm and 170 N*m (125 lb*ft) torque at 4200 rpm on a 10.0:1 compression ratio with regular-grade unleaded gasoline. The 2ZZ-GE is a new-generation engine equipped with a two-stage variable valve lift/ timing system called VVT-L on both the intake and exhaust sides, combined with the VVT-i continuously variable intake-valve timing. The 2ZZ-GE puts out 140 kW (190 bhp) at 7600 rpm and 180 N*m (133 lb”ft) at 6800 rpm on a raised 11.5:1 CR with premium unleaded fuel.

The two engines share the common bore pitch of 87.5 mm (3.44 in), but have different block constructions and cylinder dimensions. The IZZ-FE's aluminum block has cast-in gray iron liners, which are 2.0 mm (0.08 in) thick, leaving 8.5 mm (0.33 in) of metal between cylinders. The engine has a long stroke of 91.5 mm (3.60 in) relative to the 79-mm (3.11-in) bore, obtaining a total displacement of 1794 cm3. Measuring 639 mm (25.2 in) long, 586 mm (23.1 in) wide, and 632 mm (24.9) tall, the 1ZZ-FE is about 25 mm (1 in) shorter than Toyota's own 4A 1.6-L unit. It has a mass of 102 kg (225 Ib).

The 2ZZ-GE features a shorter stroke of 85 mm (3.35 in) to a large 82-mm (3.23-in) bore to attain a higher redline of 7800 rpm versus the IZZ-FE's 6800 rpm. The block is made of fine-ceramic-fiber- and grain-reinforced aluminum-silicon alloy. The piston's rubbing surface is iron-plated, and the pistons are internally cooled by oil jets. The 2ZZ-GE's cylinders are tightly packed, with only 5.5 mm (0.22 in) of metal between the adjoining bores. The cylinder block is split at the crankshaft centerline, and the cast aluminum lower block carries five main bearing caps.

Dual overhead camshafts are driven by a single-stage silent chain of 8.0-mm (0.3-in) pitch in both engines. The IZZ-FE's camshafts act on four valves per cylinder via sl-iimless bucket-type tappets. The new upright intake port design allows a narrow valve included angle of 33.1А. Valve diameters are 32.0 mm (1.26 in) for intake and 27.5 mm (1.08 in) for exhaust, and their lifts are 9.3 and 8.4 mm (0.37 and 0.33 in), respectively. The 1ZZ-FE adopts Toyota's VVT-i vane-type continuously variable intake valve timing system.

The high-performance 2ZZ-GE's cylinder head is unique to this engine. Valves are inclined at a wider angle of 43А for freer breathing through the upright intake ports. Valves are larger in diameter, at 34.0 mm (1.34 in) for intake and 29.0 mm (1.14 in) exhaust. The 2ZZ-GE combines the VVT-i continuously variable intake-valve-timing device with the new VVT-L, a Honda VTEC-like variable-lift and -timing system, employing two sets of cam profiles for both intake and exhaust. Below 6000 rpm, the WT-L employs the low- and mid-speed cam profiles, and above 6000 rpm, the high-speed profiles. The high-revving 2ZZ-GE's camshafts are sprayed with lubricant oil. Timing and lift characteristics of the 1ZZ-FE and 2ZZ-GE engine are shown in the table.

Toyota betters Japan's transitional low emission vehicle standards, achieving NOx emission of 0.06 g/km, HC emission of 0.06 g/km, and CO five-door guises. Both versions have grown a size, now matching their competitors in the world market. The short version is 4220 mm (166 in) long, 1875 mm (74 in) wide, and 1845 mm (73 in) tall, on a 2545-mm (100-in) wheelbase, and the long model is 4735 mm (186 in) long, 1875 mm (74 in) wide, and 1855 mm (73 in) tall, on a 2780-mm (109-in) wheelbase. Interior dimensions have increased, adding 135 mm (5.3 in) to the cabin length for the short version and 60 mm (2.4 in) for the long. The cabin has

also been widened by 110 mm (4.3 in). Tracks are 1500 mm (59 in) at both ends, wider by 95 and 80 mm (3.7 and 3.1 in) than the previous model's. The long model accommodates up to seven people in three-row seating.

The Pajero now has a steel, welded unit body, integrating a sturdy underfloor frame structure, vs. the previous generation's steel body-on-frame construction. The new body construction realized several important improvements. The cabin's floor

height is lower by 50 mm (2.0 in), assisting entry and exit, while increasing the vehicle's minimum ground clearance by 30 mm (1.2 in) to 235 mm (9.3 in). The larger body is also lighter by about 50 kg, and the vehicle's center of gravity is lowered by a significant 50 mm (2.0 in). The body is three times as rigid in both torsion and bending as the previous model. The unibody also allowed the relocation of the fuel tank from behind to in front of the rear axle under the passenger compartment, improving the vehicle's weight distribution and lowering its polar moment of inertia.

Mitsubishi produced a limited number of the hot Evolution version of the second-generation Pajero, employing all independent suspension based on the competition Pajero's system, which had proven its worth in the tough Paris-Dakar rally. The third-generation Pajero adopts this suspension. Front suspension is by unequal-length upper and lower A-arms, concentric



Variable system


VVT-i and VVT-L

Intake valve opening

5-48А BTDC

10А ATDC to 33А BTDC

High-speed intake valve opening


15-58А BTDC

Intake valve closing



High-speed intake valve closing


97-54А ABDC

Exhaust valve opening



High-speed exhaust valve opening



Exhaust valve closing



High-speed exhaust valve closing



Intake cam lift

9.3 mm (0.37 in)

7.25 mm (0.29 in)

High-speed cam lift


11.2 mm (0.44 in)

Exhaust cam lift

8.4 mm (0.33 in)

7.25 mm (0.29 in)

High-speed cam lift


10.0 mm (0.39 in)

Celica 230
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